Pipe Spacing Formulae
 Pipe Spacing Formulae.pdf

Why Drain?
In a fertile soil the balance between air and water must be suitable for healthy root development in order to maintain economic crop production. Some crops are particularly sensitive and can be killed even during periods of saturation as short as 24 hours.

Tree Roots & Tile Drains
Underground drainage systems can generally be considered as permanent structures. With proper grade control during installation and appropriate monitoring and maintenance over the ensuing years, underground drainage represents a prudent, long term investment.
 Tree Roots & Tile Drains.pdf

Grassed Waterways
A grassed waterway is a form of open drain that is used when large volumes of water need to be conveyed safely across the landscape. The waterway is built when a meandering creek needs to be re-aligned, an existing creek or drain is starting to erode, or the peak flow of a pipe system needs temporary accommodation.
 Grassed Waterways .pdf

Controlling Pythium and Associated Pests in Ginger
The disease Pythium Soft Rot and a wingless soil insect called symphylids threaten the viability of the Australian ginger industry. There are 49 ginger growers in Australia producing 8,000 tonnes with a farm gate value of about $16 million, concentrated in South-East Queensland between the Sunshine Coast and Bundaberg.
 Controlling Pythium and Associated Pests in Ginger.pdf


Bioremediation Filters
Sub-surface drainage is a fundamental necessity for efficient farming. Nowhere is this more pertinent than in the high rainfall grazing enterprises that are based in the heavy soil districts of South West Victoria. These grazing systems are inherently “leaky” in that high nutrient inputs and high animal by-product outputs are placed into an environment that has high and intense rainfall frequency. This leads to high rates of surface and sub-surface flows from paddocks to local watercourses.
 Bioremediation Filters.pdf

Effluent Management
Effluent on dairy farms can create one of the biggest headaches for management and yet, when handled correctly, can be one of the farm’s most valuable resources. There is a growing awareness of the environmental obligations of the farm sector and this combined with the escalating cost of bought-in nutrients, is encouraging progressive farm operators to seek cost effective effluent management systems.
 Effluent Management.pdf

The Benefits of Drainage
The amount of benefit varies considerably according to many factors and circumstances such as the weather, soil, and land use. It is therefore necessary for every case to be considered separately and for each individual to apply appropriate monetary values to the benefits obtainable.
 The Benefits of Drainage .pdf

DPI Pasture Calculator
In order to evaluate the benefits of a sub-surface drainage system on your farm a useful tool is available from the Department of Primary Industries Victoria.
  DPI Pasture Calculator.pdf

Managing irrigation salinity
Salt is present in many irrigation areas throughout Queensland, particularly those that rely on groundwater supplies. Effective salinity management is crucial to ensure both environmental and economic sustainability.

Benchmark – irrigating avocados in NQ
Benchmarking can be an effective way to identify opportunities for improved management. While benchmarking can be conducted on any area of your operation, this sheet provides a basis for benchmarking your irrigated crop performance.

Managing irrigation sodicity
Salt is present in many irrigation areas throughout Queensland, particularly those that rely on groundwater supplies. Effective salinity management is crucial to ensure both environmental and economic sustainability.

Salts in the crop root zone
Excessive salt in the crop root zone can reduce crop quality and yield. Dissolved salts naturally occur in river water, groundwater and soils. Common salts include sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium chlorides, sulphates and carbonates.

Soil water and texture
The total amount of water that a crop can take from a fully wet soil before it is suffers stress is referred to as the readily available water (RAW) content. When a clay soil is wet to field capacity, practically all of the pore space is filled with water. However, in a sandy soil, a much lower proportion of the pore space remains filled with water because water drains out of the large pore spaces between the particles. Hence, both the volume of soil water available for crop use and the amount of irrigation water that should be applied to a crop will be dependent on the texture of the soil.